India is set to overtake China as the most populous country by 2045 and authorities have been trying to fund initiatives that promote contraception, the two-children for each family norm, and gap between the birth of two children. Allegations of colonialism at best or racism at worst have never been totally absent from population assistance: Northern enthusiasm for limiting Southern births. The preoccupation is a phenomenon of the last half of the twentieth century, originating largely in concern for the impact of rapidly accelerating global population numbers. Minority groups excluded from global … “Expansive population policies” are most common in Western and Northern Europe where birth rates are some of the lowest in the world. Whipps, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, in Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 2016. It has also undoubtedly hurt social marketing campaigns and it will take a long time to regain the trust of the people. This underlines the importance of instituting voluntary family planning programmes, if we want to have sustainable population control. This is the event of Stalin killing millions of people. This number will probably keep on growing. While its burgeoning growth stresses natural resources, a continuous curb can lead to an ageing and dwindling workforce. This was the main reason the world population expanded from 2.5 to 7 billion between 1950 and 2011 . India has the unsavoury distinction of being one of only two countries where coercion has been used in family planning programmes (the other being China). The outline of the chapter is as follows. The increase is owing to government initiatives such as parental leaves with limited compensation and allowances for families with two or more children and maternity leave of 16 weeks for the first child which increases to 26 weeks for the third baby. World population to reach 9.7 billion by 2050 18/6/2019: The UN's "World Population Prospects" report observes that the world's 47 least-developed countries are among the fastest growing, and this burgeoning population will present challenges to sustainable development. And by adopting a new SDG to this effect, the world could yet save the 2030 Agenda. Rulers of any political unit have a stake in the size and composition of the population over which they have authority, hence an incentive to try to influence demographic change in a desired direction. The policy, under which families were fined if they had more than one child, has led to a shortage of young people in the country. Goals of Population Policy In China, growth has been underscored by a strict “one-child” policy, implemented in 1979. During the interval between the onset of the decline in mortality and the sustained and substantial decline in fertility, the natural rate of population growth tends to increase and the age composition of the population changes. The content of international population policy has always been sensitive, fragmented, and confrontational. The ethical issues raised by population-control programs are of two principal kinds: those concerned with specific means for controlling population growth and those which challenge the objective of limiting human fertility. The earlier population-control programs have been more vulnerable to criticism about the means used for limiting fertility; contemporary policies raise questions about the overall objectives … Evidence for this contention is based upon a review of both fertility limitation policies in developing countries and in pro-natalist policies that have appeared at different times in industrial countries. A goal of this chapter is therefore to describe what we are learning about these underlying causal relationships, and how social scientists are improving the empirical measurement of these causal relationships that could become the basis for better development policy. But the connections between the economic conditions under which people live and their longer lives, on the one hand, and the relationship between the improved health status of adults and their economic productivity as workers, on the other hand, are two possible causal relationships underlying this covariation of life span and economic growth. However, it … In India, where the majority of people are illiterate, fatalist, and custom-ridden, and do not believe in family planning, only the government’s initiative can help in controlling population growth. It is not novel that economists, especially macro- and micro-oriented economists who tend to examine empirically different types of data, country aggregates or individual and household observations, have not always reached a consensus on population issues. The biological and behavioral processes underlying the current improvement in health status are complex, with long-gestating lags linking the growth of the fetus and early childhood biological development, all the way to late life mortality, disability, and health status, as well as impacting intermediate observable outcomes such as cognitive achievements (IQ), schooling, productivity, fertility, and other forms of behavioral adaptation to local environments and policy conditions. 5 Population policies can be defined as actions taken explicitly or implicitly by the authorities to predict, delay, or manage imbalances between demographic changes, on the one hand, and social, economic, environmental, and political objectives on the other. A positive population policy which aims at reducing the birth rate and ultimately stabilising the growth rate of population. However, as this article argues, population policy is determined as much by politics and ideology as it is by demographic data. J.L. Policies Russia 1920's-1940's. In 1978, China introduced the contentious ‘one-child policy’ with an aim to reduce poverty when the country was experiencing rapid population growth. Click on the name of the country or dependency for current estimates (live population clock), historical data, and projected figures. The 2019 population density in the World is 52 people per Km 2 (134 people per mi 2), calculated on a total land area of 148,940,000 Km2 (57,506,032 sq. Whipps, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, in, Advances in Child Development and Behavior. ADVERTISEMENTS: Family planning was recognised … Many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to face rapid population growth and other barriers to social and economic … Mackenzie D.M. Unlike a “restrictive population policy,” its primary goal is to increase the rate of population growth to prevent the economic and social welfare problems that arise with an aging population. Population Policy Development in the Post-World War II Period, 1950-2000 4. In less than a century, the world population tripled from some 2.5 billion in 1950 to over 7.5 billion people in 2018. It begins by summarizing the demographic situation around the world, with an emphasis on population policies and their underlying theories. Population policies are primarily a response to the anticipated consequences of fertility and mortality, and secondarily to internal and international migration that also modify the size, age composition, and regional distribution of the population. Population is a relevant cornerstone for any effective administration. China. Thus "population policy" may be said to have a long history, starting at least with the empires of the ancient world. One underlying development that motivates much population policy research, directly or indirectly, is the demographic transition that involves first a decline in age-specific mortality rates, and then is generally followed by a decline in fertility rates. As highlighted by Connelly (2008), there are other factors that are more effective than coercion in the long run. Largely due to the unpopularity of the forced sterilisations, the Congress Party was defeated at the elections in 1977 and this ended the population policy. Many empirical and policy questions related to fertility, women's human capital, and child quality are addressed in a previous paper (Schultz, 2008a), and therefore the current chapter focuses first and more thoroughly on current health issues. China relaxed this policy in October 2015 and allowed for two children per couple — but the fertility rate (a measure of how many children a woman bears over her lifetime) only reached a dismal 1.6 children per woman in 2017. Evolution of Population Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa Population Policy and Demographic Analysis. For the first year, they get 200,000 won ($178) in cash allowances and the amount increases with each subsequent child. We discuss the utility of this social justice perspective in theory building, study design and implementation, and dissemination of findings regarding mixed-status families, with exemplars from recent research. Biological issues also affect how reproduction is modeled and technological change in birth control is viewed from a policy perspective. Section 7 turns to fertility, and focuses on the macroeconomic evidence of the consequences of fertility change and specifically its effect on economic growth, whereas Section 8 reviews briefly the microliterature on the determinants of fertility decline and the effects of policy-induced voluntary declines in fertility on the welfare of women, their families and communities that might be attributed to effective family planning and reproductive health programs. Disclaimer: The population figures for each of the countries is an estimate in millions for 2018. Developmental scientists and intervention researchers hoping to work with these mixed-status families face a myriad of challenges, largely generated from the population's policy-driven social exclusion. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. With increasing pressure from international organisations, in 1975 the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, introduced a national population policy. He forced millions into labor. While the number of people is growing fast in some countries, there is a slow growth or even a decr… A worried government has turned to several pro-natalist policies and cash payouts to encourage couples to have more babies. With a continuous decline in birth rates, Japan became the oldest large country in the world by median age in 2015 and, as of June 2018, more than half of its population is above the age of 46. Let’s take a look at some laws that have been put in place by the governments based on the state of population in the country. Established in 1979, China has had the infamous “one child per family” law to try and get its population growth in check. face increasingly complex population and migration dynamics in coming decades But we should not give up. population policy is to achieve population stabilization by 2020 through the expeditious completion of the demographic transition leading to declines both in fertility and mortality rates. For programs to be extended to new populations, the sources of heterogeneous response to the program treatments become a key issue. Even with the updated “two-child” policy in 2016, there’s no coming back from this decision—China is now contending with a rapidly aging population. President Vladimir Putin in his election campaign had vowed to spend $8.6 billion on programs to encourage Russians to have more babies. The collected international community view can be traced through population conferences. Very different remedies characterize each position. A population policy is a set of measures taken by a State to modify the way its population is changing, either by promoting large families or immigration to increase its size, or by encouraging limitation of births to decrease it. Established in 1979, China has had the infamous “one … ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the Population Policy of India: India launched its family planning programme in 1951 as part of the First Five-Year Plan, and became the first country in the world to have a state-sponsored population programme. The average length of life in the world has approximately doubled from the start of the nineteenth to the start of the twenty-first centuries, from 30–35 years to 60–70 years, with the recent notable exception being several states in Southern and Eastern Africa where life expectancy has declined due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Individual nations face their own population challenges, however, and action by national governments will be key to securing a sustainable global population. [5] [5] May, World Population Policies, 1-2. Additional methods for policy evaluation may also be useful for analyzing naturally occurring “quasi-experiments,” which tend to impose restrictions on how behavioral and technological relationships occur, yet are necessary to recover estimates of the effects of policy treatments. Higher taxation for parents with more children is one of the methods that can be used to control the population. These combined approaches, experimental and nonexperimental, may reveal the likely effects of population policy on mortality, morbidity, disability, labor productivity, labor supply, and fertility, as well as the life-cycle accumulation of physical and human capital that enhance private well-being, generate significant social externalities, operate as public goods, and spur economic growth. Population policies are primarily a response to the anticipated consequences of fertility and mortality, and secondarily to internal and international migration that also modify the size, age composition, and regional distribution of the population. From: Handbook of Development Economics, 2010, T. Paul Schultz, in Handbook of Development Economics, 2010. Section 10 concludes. This led to widespread resentment, especially among the poorer sections of society and minorities targeted. Evidence on these relationships is accumulating in a variety of disciplines and subfields of economics, and a number of emerging hypotheses merit refinement and concerted empirical study to test the magnitude of behavioral and technical responses, to determine which biological and behavioral pathways are involved in these responses, and to assess longer-run consequences of programs and policies after individuals and families reallocate their lifetime resources. Like us on Facebook to see similar stories, Bengaluru violence case: Congress councillor Abdul Rakeeb Zakir arrested, From Kavita Kaushik to Madhurima Tuli: These 8 meanest Bigg Boss contestants grabbed maximum eyeballs, Microsoft may earn an Affiliate Commission if you purchase something through recommended links in this article. At about the same time that observable downturns in the rate of population growth began, an impressive consensus emerged, encapsulated in the Cairo Conference Consensus, that the situation of women, especially their health and education, will determine population growth. Population policy will alter with these changes, likely focusing on aging and migration, as well as reproductive health issues. Authorities have begun a series of measures such as the Angel Plan (1994), the New Angel Plan (1999) and the Plus One Policy (2009) to assist and encourage young couples to have children. Some overzealous states instituted forced sterilisations, which resulted in 8.3 million sterilisations in 1976–7 against a forecasted 4.3 million (Veron, 2006). Given the complexity of these interdependent behavioral, organizational, and technological processes, some economists propose that social experiments are needed to evaluate reliably the long-run social consequences of population programs and policies. From: Handbook of Development Economics, 2010. Population: 1,417. In January 2018, the country’s birth rate hit the lowest mark with just 1.69 million babies recorded to be born in 2017. Without an understanding of how people respond to the provision of new health opportunities and means for controlling births, it is difficult to discuss the tradeoffs on which population policies seek traction. Is the Population Bomb ticking, or is ‘development the best contraceptive’? According to the world bank, the population growth rate is down from 2.3 (1974) to 1.2 (2015) and the fertility rate is down from 5.9 (1960) to 2.4 (2014). Historical Overview of Population Policies Prior to the 20th Century 3. Unsustainable population is a global problem requiring international solution. This chapter applies a social justice perspective, largely stemming from Prilleltensky's critical community psychological framework, to improve the relevance and usefulness of research on mixed-status families (Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). M. Catley-Carson, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. The United States has been a known supporter of the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, which endorses choice of the number and timing of children, gender equality and family planning based on individual preferences. Recent changes in population structures can have a major impact on human welfare and the environment. The political economy governing the performance of social organizations affecting health and schooling may also be impacted. It’s anticipated that over one-third of Chinese citizens will be 65 years … Changes in population policies and norms can reduce birth rates. A population policy is a policy that a country engages in in order to get its population to a level that it feels is optimal for it. Along with childcare allowances and better infrastructure to encourage citizens into having children, two kinds of maternity leaves are offered now — a longer period of leave coupled with lower financial benefits and a shorter period of leave with higher financial gains. China introduced a controversial "one-child policy" in 1978, saying efforts to reduce poverty and develop the economy were being undermined by rapid population growth, especially in the countryside. However, this area of population policy research is complicated and cannot yet deliver confident answers to settle many of these central questions confronting policy makers. Section 5 surveys the macroeconomic evidence on health and growth, which has relied largely on cross-country comparisons, whereas Section 6 surveys the microeconomic evidence on health and development, where households and communities are the units of observation, and the primary goals are to estimate health production functions and the productive labor returns to health human capital. This may create opportunities or imbalances in the aggregate economy for which social welfare policies are sometimes proposed to improve prospects, typically through the introduction of subsidies, taxes, transfers and regulatory policies to deal with externalities. More than 4 million unauthorized parents of legal status children currently reside in the United States (Capps, Fix, & Zong, 2016). Greater numbers tended to connote greater wealth and power, at least for those at the apex of the so… Anyone, married or single, who was childless after the age of 25 was subject to a tax of 10 to 20 per cent of their income. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, There are two distinct but inter-related elements within international, Baby Booms and Baby Busts in the Twentieth Century, Family Theory: Feminist–Economist Critique, Gynecological Health: Psychosocial Aspects, Human Rights in Intercultural Discourse: Cultural Concerns, Reproductive Rights in Developing Nations, Sexual Behavior: Sociological Perspective, Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Psychosocial Aspects, India has the unsavoury distinction of being one of only two countries where coercion has been used in family planning programmes (the other being China). These changes in mortality and fertility are related to the reallocation of family resources over its life cycle, and these interdependent behavioral responses of women and men, parents and children, provide the core microeconomic issues for study. The current government is now considering relaxing the policy even further. As this population explosion got under way during the 1950s and 1960s, national and international policy-makers became concerned about the threat to the well-being of mostly poor societies. Photo Credit: Population Council. miles). To reverse the zero-population growth Romania faced in 1966, authorities banned all elective abortions and criminalized the import of contraception. Introduction to Population Policies 2. Feminist appreciations of health issues brought dramatic change. This resulted in a birth rate of 19.5 by late 1970 A population control bill seeking to implement a two-child policy was tabled in the Parliament in 2017, but it is yet to be passed as a law. mile), excluding Antarctica. Although successive governments made several efforts to make the family planning campaigns friendlier, this has damaged the credibility of government organisations and anybody involved in family planning programmes. In Oct. 2017, Vietnam revised its policy and now couples are free to have more than two children, and couples with three or more children will not be fined anymore. Controlling population will secure our resources, and this is what countries are doing. Mao - 1965- population good thing,when died in 1976 China had 850 million people and birth rate of 25 Successors - Two child policy because country consuming half of GDP; government provided services including abortion that promoted policy.